Clinical Laboratory Science Internship Program
The mission of the internship is for the clinical laboratory intern, over a period of time, to attain and build upon the knowledge, skills, responsibilities, and ability to safely, efficiently, and effectively practice laboratory work under the laws and rules of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
- To identify tests that would be performed in a high volume or stat laboratory
- Ensuring the safe and accurate preparation and calculation of reagents and devices. The clinical laboratory intern shall perform calculations required to carry out different tests required in each section involved
- To give technologists a basic understanding of how and why these tests are performed
- To expose technologists to some of the diseases process associated with tests
- Understanding the management in clinical laboratory. The clinical laboratory-intern shall develop a general understanding of the business procedures of labs and develop knowledge concerning the employment and supervision of laboratory employee.
Each module focuses on the clinical tests used in each area. The clinical significance of the test, the sample required, the limitations or interference’s, and common reporting protocols will be examined. The case studies will provide an opportunity to integrate clinical information from each discipline.
The internship training program consists of the following:
- Hospital Training
- Didactic Part:
- Research Project
- Advanced Education Seminar
- Community Projects
The Internship Training Program is administered by the Interns’ Training Program Committee and it requires interns to participate in different clinical laboratory rotations for a period of twelve (12) months, which is divided into six (6) rotas.
A. Hospital Training
The training will be spent in chosen hospital wherein they will be trained in different laboratory sections.
B. Didactic Activities
The didactic part includes participation in treatment planning sessions, advanced education seminars, and also completion and presentation of the research projects.
Interns who are assigned outside the Colleges are expected to attend all the weekly didactic activity at the colleges.
C. Community Projects
This part stresses the importance of prevention of diseases through intern’s involvement in community activities. The interns must carry out projects related to health education programs.
General Rules and Regulations
A. Admission to the Program
This program is open to graduates with a Bachelor of clinical laboratory Science Degree. The program fee is 40,000 Saudi Riyals with an option of paying the amount. Two installments, first installment will be at the beginning of the internship and the second installment should be paid before the commencement of the fourth rota.
B. Duration and Continuity of Training
- The internship program is for one-year (12 months) consisting of six (6) rotations. The specified period of training shall be on a continuous and uninterrupted basis.
- A maximum of accumulated thirty (30) days official leave of absence (Emergency leave, Sick leave, Educational leave, Maternity Leave and other types of leave) are allowed during the entire training period.
- Only a maximum of (10 ) days Emergency or Educational Leave days can be filed in a month.
- Only a maximum of (3) days compassionate leave can be filed in case of death of an immediate family member. Copy of Death certificate must be provided within (5) days of filing.
Online Filing of Leave Guidelines
- Emergency leave needs to be filed at least 24 hours before duty.
- Sick leave to be filed at least 3 hours before the duty and the medical certificate/report should be provided within 2 days of the last day of leave.
- Female intern’s maternity leave to be filed within the time frame of her duty and the medical certificate/report should be provided within 2 days from the last day of leave.
- Educational leave to be filed at least 24 hours before duty and the Certificate of Attendance should be provided within 2 days from the last day of leave.
- All leave including those in outside rotation must be filed after accomplishing the Leave Request Form Online and be approved to be considered official.
- Early leave (permit to leave premises during working hours) needs to be filed at least 24 hours before duty. Interns with only half session (3 hours duty) in a day cannot file for an early leave request. Interns are only allowed to accumulate a maximum of 18 hours in the entire training period with a maximum of (3) hours per applied leave.
C. Symposia and Scientific Meetings
- Each intern may apply to attend a national symposium once or twice during the internship training period. The time spent in such symposium need not be replaced at the end of the program, provided that the candidate can present a certificate of attendance.
- All applications must be filed officially following the approval process set forth in the request form.
- A maximum of one week may be given to those who may wish to attend an international meeting while the local meetings will be based on the number of days applied.
- Candidate who shows the interest in presenting an accepted scientific paper will have the privilege to attend more than two meetings.
D. Other Vital Components
Punctuality in all clinics laboratory is mandatory and the daily attendance will be monitored closely. Interns should abide the official working hours in addition to the rules and regulations required by each training institution they are attending.
- Clinic Attire
Interns are requested to take the recommendation regarding the prescribed clinical dress at working hours seriously in each training institution. Interns are obliged to use the proper identification badge. Blue jeans and casual dress are not allowed in clinical premises.
- Professional Ethics
Interns are expected to maintain respect and confidence of patients through sincere and honest relationship.Duty to the PatientClinical laboratory professionals are accountable for the quality and integrity of the laboratory services they provide. This obligation includes maintaining individual competence in judgment and performance and striving to safeguard the patient from incompetent or illegal practice by others.Clinical laboratory professionals maintain high standards of practice. They exercise sound judgment in establishing, performing and evaluating laboratory testing.Clinical laboratory professionals maintain strict confidentiality of patient information and test results. They safeguard the dignity and privacy of patients and provide accurate information to other health care professionals about the services they provide.Duty to Colleagues and the ProfessionClinical laboratory professionals uphold and maintain the dignity and respect of our profession and strive to maintain a reputation of honesty, integrity and reliability. They contribute to the advancement of the profession by improving the body of knowledge, adopting scientific advances that benefit the patient, maintaining high standards of practice and education, and seeking fair socioeconomic working conditions for members of the profession.Clinical laboratory professionals actively strive to establish cooperative and respectful working relationships with other health care professionals with the primary objective of ensuring a high standard of care for the patients they serve.Duty to SocietyAs practitioners of an autonomous profession, clinical laboratory professionals have the responsibility to contribute from their sphere of professional competence to the general well being of the community.Clinical laboratory professionals comply with relevant laws and regulations pertaining to the practice of clinical laboratory science and actively seek, within the dictates of their consciences, to change those which do not meet the high standards of care and practice to which the profession is committed.
In case of unapproved absence, negligence, misconduct, incompetence, insubordination or any other act that the interns’ superior deem unacceptable, an Intern shall be dully reported to the Interns’ Training Program Committee for disciplinary action. Depending on the seriousness of the offense and upon the recommendation of the Interns’ Training Committee, a disciplinary action may be one of the following:
- Probation, verbal and written warnings.
- Repeating a rotation.
- Suspension of the Intern for some time as directed by ITPC.
In order to monitor the interns’ performance, it becomes very essential that some forms of quantification and possible evaluation of the work carried out by the interns should be documented. Each procedure performed by the intern is recorded and will be compiled in a weekly report. While in other institutions, training supervisors send their evaluation of the intern’s performance at the end of each rotation (Appendix I). By the end of the program, the intern’s performance should be evaluated and assessed by the Interns’ Training Program Committee. The data for evaluation will be compiled from the summary of procedures recorded, and the decision of whether the intern has fulfilled his requirements or requires an extension of the program will be recommended.
At the end of the one-year internship program, interns will be awarded certificate of completion of the internship, provided that they have fulfilled all the requirements of the program.
Administration of the Program
Quality Assurance General Internship Training Program Committee (QAGITPC)
During the entire period of the internship, all interns are under the administration of the Quality Assurance General Internship Training Program Committee. Members of the committee hold regular meetings to discuss the progress of the program and other issues pertaining to the Interns. The Quality Assurance General Internship Training Program Committee is appointed by the Rector as follows:
- Internship Training Program Coordinators
- Intern Clinic Directors
- Intern Research Director
- Intern Research Assistant Director
- Intern Community Director
- Intern Seminar Director
- Continuing Education and Post-Internship Preparation Director
- Intern Outside Rotation Director
- Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Office Director
- Chief Auxiliary Services
Interns shall work on a full time basis during the entire period of their Internship program. They shall execute all dental procedures defined in the curriculum and perform other duties related to their training that may be assigned by the Directors. Interns are expected to observe all rules and regulations specified in this manual.
The faculty has a big role in the successful administration of the program by providing support thru supervision in the clinics as well as in the research projects.
- Role of the Faculty Research Supervisor
- Assist the interns in selecting research topics.
- Assists the intern in all their preparations for their research.
- Checks adequacy of the literature review.
- Supervises the intern in all stages of the research projects including data collection, analysis and writing of the paper to ensure that the research paper is completed and submitted at least two weeks prior to the scheduled presentation date.
- Provides moral support to the intern during his/her presentation by being physically present and by providing assistance in clarifying questions or issues which may be raised during the open forum.
- Updates the QAGITPC Intern Research Director or the Intern Research Assistant Director with the progress of the intern research project.
- Accomplishes the evaluation form promptly at the end of the intern’s presentation.
Responsibilities of Quality Assurance General Internship Training Program Committee (QAGITPC)
- Role of Intern Training Program Committee Chairman
- Monitors the overall process of the training program and prepares the needed internal communications.
- Is responsible for calling meetings to discuss significant developments and other relevant activities.
- Role of Internship Training Program Coordinators
- Supervise the implementation of the internship training program.
- Responsible for reporting achievements and difficulties met in the program and make the necessary follow up thru proper monitoring.
- Responsible for gathering all the data pertaining to intern’s attendance, attitude, performance, productivity reports and evaluation within and outside the Institutions.
- Act as a liaison among the faculty members, supervisors and the rest of the members of the Quality Assurance General Internship Training Program Committee.
- Role of Intern Research Director
- Directs the overall activities related to the Intern Research Projects.
- Responsible for the orientation of interns regarding the official format and guidelines to be followed in research projects.
- Responsible for overseeing interns research presentations.
- Responsible for evaluating the Interns Research Project Presentations.
- Responsible for motivating the interns to submit their research projects for future publications.
- Responsible for monitoring the intern and research supervisors’ progress in the research preparation.
- Responsible for submitting a bi-monthly progress report of the research activities to the Interns Quality Assurance Office thru the Research Centre Office.
- Role of Intern Community Director
- Responsible for the Orientation of Interns regarding their Community Projects.
- Responsible for acquainting the interns with the overall guidelines in community projects preparation.
- Responsible for all Interns Community Projects Preparation.
- Responsible for Guiding Interns in accomplishing Official Reports of their Community Projects.
- Responsible for submitting summary reports of all community projects to the Interns Quality Assurance Office.
- Role of Intern Seminar Director
- Responsible for organizing the Advance Education Seminars including the Treatment Planning Sessions.
- Responsible for guiding the interns regarding the topics selection.
- Responsible for inviting the supervisors in charge of guiding the interns in their seminars.
- Responsible for assigning facilitators and panel of interns who will provide questions to the presenters for each session.
- Responsible for reviewing the CD of the presentation prior to the actual date and advising the interns to provide hard copies to the attendees to promote active participation.
- Responsible for the Scheduling Arrangements of Interns thru the assistance of the Chief Auxiliary Staff.
- Responsible for attending these seminars and instill discipline in the attendance and behavior of interns in didactic activities.
- Responsible for providing weekly and monthly report regarding the details of each presentation (topic and date) and the interns evaluation for submission to the Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Office thru the assistance of the Chief Auxiliary Staff.
- Responsible for providing weekly and monthly report of attendance and behavior of Interns in Didactic Activities to the Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Office thru the assistance of the Chief Auxiliary Staff.
- Role of Continuing Education and Post-Internship Preparation Director
- Responsible for running activities preparation to Saudi Health Board Exam and American National Board Examinations.
- Responsible for organizing conferences and symposium activities.
- Role of Intern Outside Rotation Director
- Responsible for the overall coordination with the outside training institutions regarding intern’s performance, attendance, evaluation and other concerns.
- Responsible for visiting the interns in their respective outside training institutions to monitor their activities and progress.
- Responsible for submitting Monthly Progress report of all interns in outside rotation.
- Responsible for the Preparation of the Interns Annual Rotation Summary Report and its regular updating.
- Responsible for the up to date submission of Evaluation Reports of interns on outside rotation.
- Responsible for coordinating with the Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Office regarding the necessary documents needed by the interns in other training institutions.
- Role of Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Coordinator
- Responsible for the Quality Assurance of the Internship Programs.
- Responsible for receiving all the reports from the different members of the QAGITPC and organizing them in an acceptable format matching the standard of National Commission for Academic Assessment and Accreditation (NCAAA) to be presented to the Chairman of QAGITPC for the necessary actions to be undertaken and to be implemented thru Quality Assurance Internship Training Program Office.
- Responsible for preparing the agenda of the bi-monthly meeting of the QAGITPC after counseling from its Chairman.
- Responsible for monitoring reports and answering the e-mails from [email protected] mails after direct consultation with the Chairman of the QAGITPC.
- Responsible for coordinating with the Chief Auxiliary Services at each campus to organize the initial draft of the yearly interns training clinical schedule for all the six (6) ROTAs and get final approval from the Chairman of the QAGITPC prior to its release.
- Responsible for coordinating the reports and the items which must be discussed each rota and to inform the Chairman of QAGITPC for any deviation from the original intern plan.
- Responsible for the software management of intern training program which is now under development.
Site of Internship and Duration
Chosen Hospital (Medical Laboratory Departments)
- Departments participating in the internshipA number of departments will participate in the rotations; any addition to them will be at the discretion of the department.These departments include:
- Clinical biochemistry
- Hematology and blood bank
- Molecular biology
- Food and Drug Analysis Laboratory
- EvaluationInterns will be evaluated by the department at the end of each rotation.Additionally, the interns’ research project and advanced education seminar presentation will also be evaluated.
- Goals, Objectives & Brief Descriptions
- General Laboratory Management
- Module DescriptionSupervised clinical practicum in which the student is exposed to basic, advanced and specialized techniques in the area of clinical chemistry, molecular biological methods and blood gas analysis. Clinical practice focused on basic, special test methods, instrumentation used in quantifying metabolites and analyses are discussed in the course. Quality controls, correlations of test data to disease status are presented while biological and chemical safety is practiced. Students will be assigned to clinical laboratory affiliations.
- General Module Objectives
- Perform procedures, task and skills accurately.
- Use analytical and clinical decision-making skills to evaluate health status
- Maintain effective quality assurance and quality control.
- Assess the economic implications of new techniques, equipment and procedures.
- Use research strategies to evaluate and implement procedures and proper protocol
- Demonstrate effective communications skills.
- Adhere to professional, ethical and legal standards.
- Participate in improvement of health care, scholarship in clinical practice and lifelong learning.
- Quality Assurance in the LaboratoryIntroduction of the following concepts:
- Good Laboratory Practice
- Good Research Practice
- International Standards Organization (ISO)
- Hospital Management
- Safety in the LaboratoryCoverage of the various aspects such as:
- Introduction to Laboratory Safety
- Chemical Safety
- Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
- Biological Safety
- Performing Risk Assessments
- Nuclear Safety
- Laboratory ManagementThe overview of specimen handling and processing including basic laboratory supplies, blood and other specimen collection and other guidelines and specimen handling considerations.Introduction of the usage of laboratory management software regarding:
- Stock Control
- Specimen Databases
- Staff Management
- Managing Workloads
- Automated Reports
- Inter-laboratory Proficiency TestingDiscussion of the Principles of Inter-laboratory proficiency testing.
- PhlebotomyIt will provide a comprehensive classroom and clinical education in Phlebotomy. Interns will acquire safe techniques and skills in blood collection. Interns will be expected to demonstrate the ability to obtain patient’s blood specimens by venipuncture and micro-collection techniques.
- Clinical Chemistry
- Module descriptionThis module will provide a broad working knowledge of the basic concepts in clinical chemistry. The candidate will need to have at least two years experience in a clinical chemistry laboratory before attempting this module.Competence in the chosen profession and successful completion on of this module will help the trainee in the principles, limitations of pharmacokinetics, purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) along with the techniques used during measurement.
- General Module ObjectivesThis module should enable the student to:
- Interpret physician’s orders for:
- Biochemical diagnostic assays
- Endocrine function tests/therapy
- Identify biochemical diagnostic agents or tests useful in:
- Monitoring response to therapy
- Define, interpret, or apply biochemical terminology as it relates to:
- Disease state
- Metabolic functions (or organs)
- Endocrine function
- Interpret the clinical significance of biochemical lab test results
- Identify and remedy interactions of drugs with lab tests
- Identify, evaluate, and recommend home diagnostic procedures/devices
- Interpret physician’s orders for:
- Automated Chemistry AnalyzersTo give an overview of the latest developments in laboratory instrumentation and technological advances affecting the running of a laboratory that deals with:
- Laboratory Automation
- Robotic Machines
- Laboratory Information Management Systems
- Review of the latest technologies and instruments pertinent to Biomedicine
- Invited Company Representatives
- Routine and Special Chemistry Tests
- Critical Care AnalytesOn completion of this module the candidate would be expected to have a complete and thorough knowledge of the following:
- Electrolytes and Blood Gases
- The importance of serum osmolality as an indicator of water balance
- Recognize the importance of water balance and the kidney
- Have a detailed knowledge of electrolytes and in particular sodium
- Understand the causes of hypernatremia and hyponatremia and their relationship to chloride and potassium
- Understand the significance of euvolaemia, hypovolaemia, hypervolaemia.
- Understand the importance of the residual anion concentration
- Know the significance of the anion gap to electrolytes and to blood gases
- Understand the function and importance of potassium ions and their effect on acidosis and alkalosis.
- Know the methods and their principles, in determining electrolytes and blood gases
- Have a detailed knowledge of blood gases, and the ability to interpret the results.
- Understand the value of chemical buffers
- Understand the importance of obtaining a blood specimen that has been collected properly and sent to the laboratory promptly
- Identify mechanisms that the kidney uses to maintain homeostasis
- Understand the significant homeostatic role carried out by electrolytes and the water, and their relationship with blood gases
- Markers of Cardiac Function and Injury
- Know the criteria for the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction
- Have a detailed knowledge of the pit-falls that may affect the various analytical methods be able to compare the value CK-MB mass assays to Troponin T or I understand the value of Myoglobulin to be able to identify reperfusion and re-infarction identify the active binding sites on the Troponin complex
- Able to carry out appropriate tests to assist in the diagnosis of a myocardial infarction
- Carbohydrates and Diabetes
- Know the role of the following hormones in glucose metabolism: insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, thyroxine, ACTH, cortisol, and growth hormone
- Understand the metabolism of carbohydrates in humans
- Identify diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, and gestational diabetes mellitus
- Know the value of testing and monitoring for hypo or hyperglycaemia
- Know the use of haemoglobin A1c and its measurement
- Recognize the role of self monitoring for glucose
- Understand the value of glucose tolerance testing in diabetic diagnosis
- Know the complications that diabetics suffer from
- Be able to evaluate of the levels of ketoacidosis and micro-albuminuria
- Know the role of potassium when monitoring treatment
- Understand the importance of maintaining blood glucose levels within normal limits and know the corresponding consequences if they are not within the acceptable limit.
- Electrolytes and Blood Gases
- Routine AnalytesLipids and lipoproteins
- Know the general chemical structure and biological functions of lipids
- Understand the significance of the following: fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol
- Identify the important role that the liver plays
- Identify the two lipid pathways and their functions
- Understand the causes that lead to atherosclerosis
- Identify individuals at risk for atherosclerosis
- Have a sound knowledge of diseases that result from deficiencies in lipid metabolism
- Have the analytical ability to be able to test for the various lipids and to understand the principles underpinning these
- Recognize the importance of identifying an abnormal lipid result, and if abnormal, treating and monitoring these levels
- Metabolic Analytes
- Recognize the value of measuring both urea and creatinine
- Note sources of error, particularly, when measuring creatinine
- Recognize the many functions that the kidney performs
- Carry out creatinine clearance testing as well as concentration and dilution tests
- Understand the metabolic pathways leading to the elimination of uric acid.
- Know the causes and treatment of gout
- A sound knowledge of various uric acid methods is essential as interfering substances, in some methods, can significantly affect the results
- Understand the importance of the kidney in removing waste products, and to recognize the endocrine of the kidney. To know the pitfalls in laboratory testing, in particular for creatinine and uric acid
Bone Metabolism and Calcium
- Understand the hormones that control calcium absorption
- Identify the homeostatic functions of calcium
- Know the various analytical test methods for calcium, phosphate, and magnesium
- Understand the complexities of measuring calcium
- Understand why albumin is also measured
- Know the value of measuring ionized calcium as compared to total calcium
- Be aware of the errors in these tests and also recognize and identify the diagnostic value when measuring calcium, magnesium and phosphates
- Be able to interpret these results for the clinician
- Know that calcium and magnesium are difficult tests to carry out and the accuracy is often poor. Yet recognize that these are some of the most important tests in a number of critical conditions.
- Understand the structure and function of proteins
- Measurement of total protein and albumin
- Know the diagnostic value of measuring proteins
- Describe methods for measuring specific proteins and understand the diagnostic value of this. Examples are α1-antitrypsin, α1-fetoprotein, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1-acid glycoprotein, α1- macroglobulin, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, β2-micrglobulin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, C3 component, and immunoglobulins
- Identify protein bands on an electrophoresis strip
- Understand the principles of protein electrophoresis
- Able to identify proteins from an electrophoresis strip and recognize the clinical significance of these.
Liver Function and Enzyme Testing
- Understand the difference between mass and activity enzyme reactions.
- Identify abnormal liver function using a variety of enzyme tests.
- Understand the value of measuring bilirubin. Identify the value of measuring both conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin.
- Understand the molecular structure of bilirubin and identify the value of blue light in a jaundiced neonate.
- Know the main causes of incorrect bilirubin testing.
- Understand the pit-falls of the various methods in use.
- Know what delta bilirubin is and understand the diagnostic significance of this.
- Many liver function tests rely on enzymatic tests.
- Know the principles of these and the pit-falls that can happen.
- Know what zero order and first order kinetics are in a enzymatic reaction.
- Understand the terminology of enzyme assays.
- Know the causes of error in enzyme reactions and how to rectify them.
- Identify linear phase and lag phase of the reaction.
- Be able to synthesis the results together to indicate a diagnosis.
- Recognize that most enzyme reactions are measured at 340nm and know the reasons for this.
- Understand the reasons why pH, temperature, substrate, enzyme concentration, are so important in these reactions that have to be tightly controlled.
- Recognize the importance of storage, transport and handling of specimens prior to their assay.
- Able to carry out enzyme tests with accuracy and to recognize situations where substrate depletion is occurring. To be able to identify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial enzymes and know the diagnostic value of these.
- Therapeutic Drug MonitoringTherapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement of the serum level of a drug and the coordination of this serum level with a serum therapeutic range. The serum therapeutic range is the concentration range where the drug has been shown to be efficacious without causing toxic effects in most people. Recommended therapeutic ranges can generally be found in the product inserts for drugs that require monitoring. They are also available in books such as the Physicians’ Desk Reference, and articles in the primary medical journals.Upon completion of this section the students will be able to:
- Define therapeutic drug monitoring and outline circumstances where it is useful.
- Discuss the role of sample timing in obtaining accurate therapeutic drug monitoring results.
- List the drugs commonly seen in the office practice setting which require therapeutic monitoring, and discuss important aspects of their pharmacology as it relates to therapeutic drug monitoring.
- Discuss urine drug screening in the office practice environment.
- Recognize some factors which may affect the accuracy of urine drug screen results.
- Outline some factors which are useful in evaluating a reference laboratory for drug screening.
- Laboratory CalculationsBasic laboratory calculations units of measure and conversions; simple and serial dilutions; general considerations for performing calculations. Pipetting Techniques and Volumetric Measurements.Overview of different types of pipettes and proper technique of using each reagent Preparation. Overview of chemicals and reagents Preparation, grades, purity, nomenclature, applications for use Solutions (percent, normality and molarities) and concentrations calculations.
- Urine and Other Fluids ChemistriesThis section deals with the urine chemistries and those body fluid chemistries that require manual manipulation or testing.Upon completion of this unit, the Intern will be able to:
- Prepare 24 hour urine containers, and explain collection procedures to patients with minimal supervision.
- Calculate 24 hour urine results of:
- Creatinine clearance
- Calculate a 2-hour urine amylase results.
- Discuss procedures to evaluate other body fluids (CSF, pleural, amniotic, etc.).
- Perform urine and serum pregnancy tests.
- Correlate patient results with clinical significance.
- Report results according to laboratory protocol.
- Record patient results and quality control according to departmental
- Hematology and Blood Bank Transfusion Medicine
- Module DescriptionThis module requires demonstration of extensive knowledge and understanding of the cellular investigations performed in the routine hematology laboratory. It also requires a reasonable knowledge of normal and abnormal cell physiology, clinical aspects relevant to routine hematological testing and other technical procedures related to cellular hematology.
- General Module ObjectivesUnderstanding the following:
- Automated cell counting and detailed knowledge of the major instruments used. Detailed knowledge of recent developments and innovations including understanding of the technical and clinical role as well as value of specific technologies.
- Staining machines, slide makers, ESR analysers etc. Staining and microscopy staining techniques in routine use, e.g. Romanowsky, supra-vital and cytochemical staining.
- Components and use of the microscope, morphology of all normal and abnormal haemopoietic cells found in blood, bone marrow and body fluids.
- Manually performed tests ESR, reticulocytes, Heinz bodies, rapid screening tests for IM, malaria etc. manual cell counting and associated techniques Investigation of blood borne parasites.
- Microscopic techniques and rapid screening tests
- Strategies and standards applied to reporting of laboratory results
- Units and reference ranges
- Specimen collection
- Handling anticoagulants with regards to specimen stability, storage, tansport and other special requirements
- Routine Hematology Tests
- Specimen requirements, reference ranges, significance of the Complete Blood Count (CBC), differential, reticulocyte count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
- Pre-analytical errors, quality control
- Correlation of normal and abnormal RBC indices
- Overview of Hematopoiesis
- Major site of hematopoiesis, review of stem cell theory, growth factors
- Review of maturation states, differentiation of cells in peripheral blood
- Lifespan, appearance and function of mature blood cells,
- Building blocks of hemoglobin
- Erythrocyte Disorders
- Anemias including causes and clinical findings, contrast true and pseudo anemia
- Findings indicative of bone marrow erythropoiesis
- Morphologic and pathophysiologic classifications of anemia
- Evaluation of selected anemias including cause, significant abnormalities and diagnostic test results
- Polycythemia and pseudo anemia, characteristics of normal newborn blood smear
- Leukocyte Disorders
- Laboratory tests aiding in the investigation of WBC disorders
- Differentiation between reactive and malignant leukocyte disorders including cause, clinical findings, significant abnormalities and laboratory results
- Etiology of malignant leukocytes disorders
- Leukemias, lymphomas including predominant cell type, origin, clinical symptoms, laboratory findings
- Overview of Hemostasis, Tests and Disorders
- Activation of all major haemostatic components following injury
- Role of vascular system and platelets in homeostasis
- Role of regulatory system in maintaining haemostatic balance
- Screening tests performed to detect defects of primary and secondary homeostasis
- Specimen requirements
- Selected hereditary and acquired disorders
- Mode of action, clinical use and laboratory tests used to monitor anti-coagulant therapy
- Pre-transfusion testingThe Intern will learn and perform the various tests involved in compatibility testing. They will learn follow-up procedures used when blood is incompatible. Upon completion of this unit, the Intern will be able to:
- Evaluate specimens submitted for pre-transfusion testing with respect
- To define labeling criteria, age of specimen, and appearance of specimen.
- Accurately perform and interpret all serologic testing procedures required
- To provide compatible blood for transfusion, including:
- ABO and Rh typing of patient.
- Antibody screening
- Antibody identification
- Selection of appropriate donor units for compatibility testing
- Cross-match testing.
- Recognize test reactions characteristic of the following situations and Suggest or perform correct follow-up
- ABO cell-serum grouping discrepancies.
- Cole reactive auto and/or alloantibody
- Single/multiple blood group all antibodies
- Warm autoantibody
- Identify when weak D testing must be performed as part of Rh typing
(i.e. donor units, transfusion recipients, prenatal patients, neonates).
- Module DescriptionThis Module covers the basics of Medical Microbiology, in particular bacteriology and antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this module is to cover a broad range of topics relevant to individuals employed in medical microbiology laboratories. It is designed to develop a detailed understanding of pathogens commonly encountered in general medicine and to ensure an understanding of the causes, diagnosis and treatment of potential exotic diseases that occasionally emerge.The Module will provide a solid foundation on biological science. An undergraduate knowledge of microbiology and/or employment in a medical microbiology laboratory would be beneficial.This Module will provide knowledge on medical microbiology with strong emphasis on bacteriology and antimicrobial therapy. The techniques used in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infection are covered and basic understanding of other topics such as parasitology, virology and mycology is included.
- General Module ObjectivesThis course will enable the Intern to learn about:
- Microorganisms in health, food, agriculture, and the environment
- Microbial growth on solid media and in liquids
- Measurement of microbial growth
- Isolation and characterization of microbes
- Structure and function of bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa
- BacteriologyThis course will enable the Intern acquire knowledge in:
- Safety and quality control in microbiology
- Host-microorganism interactions, including pathogenic mechanisms of microorganisms
- Specimen collection, transport, receipt and processing
- Direct microscopic examination including Gram stain principle, procedure, interpretation/ reporting and troubleshooting, acid-fast stains, fluorochrome stains and wet preps
- Specimen preparation for culture set-ups and selection, inoculation and incubation of culture media
- Interpretation of cultures and overview of bacterial identification, including macroscopic and microscopic characteristics; environmental and nutritional requirements of bacteria
- Principles of identification schemes, including commercial systems
- Antimicrobial Susceptibility TestingThis is an introduction to the:
- Definitions, mechanisms of action and mechanisms of resistance
- The testing goals, standardization and quality control of antimicrobial susceptibility
- Testing methods that directly detect antimicrobial activity, including disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer), E test, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), agar dilution, and screening/supplemental test methods, e.g. MRSA and VRE screens, D-zone test, ESBL
- Testing methods that directly detect specific resistance mechanisms, e.g. beta-lactamase
- Cumulative antibiograms and predictable susceptibility patterns
- Common antimicrobial agents and their mode of action, family name, route of administration, common product name, spectrum of activity and indications for use
- ParasitologyTaking medically important parasitic diseases into consideration the intern will be able to:
- Know the etiology, pathology and pathogenesis of common parasitic infections and critically evaluate diagnostic methods used in common parasitic diseases in Sri Lanka.
- Describe the epidemiology of parasitic infections in Sri Lanka and other globally parasitic infections
- Understand the principles of disease transmission, including source, mode of transmission, portal of entry and virulence of pathogens
- Understand the principles underlying the laboratory diagnosis
- Explain the principles of prevention and control
- VirologyThis Module will provide a broad knowledge of virology. It includes the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, direct antigen detection and identification of the cause of infection of the infected individual. The natural history of infection, the appropriate collection, transport and storage of samples are covered. Techniques such as tissue culture, serology and molecular biology as they are applied to a medical virology laboratory are included. A basic understanding of laboratory management and safety is required.
- MycologyUpon successful completion of this module you will be able to:
- Understand the clinical importance of fungi
- Detect and interpret fungi indirect smears such as Gram stain, KOH and Calcofluor White from clinical specimens
- Differentiate septate hyphae, aseptate hyphae, pseudohyphae and dematiaceous fungi based on structures observed under the microscope
- Special Techniques
- Module DescriptionTo give an overview of the latest developments in laboratory instrumentation and technological advances affecting the running of a laboratory including PCR techniques, analytical toxicology and inborn metabolic screening tests.
- General Module ObjectivesTo acquire knowledge on:
- The basic metabolic pathways;
- inborn errors of metabolism and the application of DNA technology to their study;
- the control and integration of metabolism.
- Tissue processing and sectioning; Immunohistochemistry; Polymerase chain reaction; In-situ hybridisation; Image analysis; Flow cytometry; ELISA and related methods; Hybridoma technology; Electron microscopy; Laboratory animals.
- Basics of analytical toxicology
- The basic metabolic pathways;
- Inborn metabolic errorsThe aims of the course are to provide you with an understanding of: (1) the basic metabolic pathways; (2) inborn errors of metabolism and the application of DNA technology to their study; (3) the control and integration of metabolism.By the end of this module the Intern will be able to:
- Describe the principles of metabolism;
- Discuss the role of coenzymes, such as NAD+, NADP+, ATP, in metabolism;
- Outline the metabolic pathways involved in the catabolism of glucose and fatty acids;
- Show how the energy released by catabolism is recouped by substrate level and oxidative phosphorylation;
- Show how amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism are inter-linked;
- Describe the various types of genetic mutation and inborn errors of metabolism
- Describe the methods for screening and detecting inborn errors of metabolism
- Describe the genetic treatments for inborn errors of metabolism
- Discuss the mechanisms by which metabolic pathways can be regulated;
- Outline the hormonal regulation of metabolism and discuss the role of protein phosphorylation in this context;
- Describe the regulation of metabolism in physiological and pathological situations (e.g., exercise, starvation and diabetes);
- Demonstrate acquired skills in basic biochemical laboratory methods
- Demonstrate an ability to handle simple mathematical treatments of biological Processes
- Analytical toxicology & InstrumentationsThe aim of this module is to introduce interns to the major chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques used in analytical toxicology, the instrumentation used including scientific principles underlying, and usage in sample analysis.At the end of the module, interns will be able to:
- Describe the chromatographic and spectroscopic instrumentation used and explain how it operates to enable analysis
- Explain the scientific principles underlying each chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques
- Compare and contrast the various techniques giving advantages and disadvantages of each
- Decide which technique(s) would be most appropriate for the analysis of a given sample and explain the reasons for your decision
- Give examples of the uses for each technique in analytical science, with particular emphasis on analytical toxicology.
- SterilizationThe module describes the sterilization process, including preparation, sterilization, various methods with examples of instruments and/or devices appropriate to the particular method. It will pertain to sterilization process monitoring, and documentation.After completing this module, the intern will be able to accomplish the following:
- Discuss each of the five steps of the sterilization process.
- Describe the sterilization methods presented in this module.
- List the types of sterilization-monitoring devices used for healthcare sterilization processes as presented in this module.
- Discuss monitoring methods and frequency of use for the sterilization methods presented in this module.
- Describe environmental considerations with regard to sterilization method choices
- PCR and DNA DiagnosisThe Polymerase Chain Reaction is an important tool for biologists, forensic scientists, and biochemists for the selective replication of DNA, this tool that the interns will need to learn as a foundation for future applications. Provides a closure on the foundation upon which the next lesson will be based as well as a nice transition into the lesson which is on PCR, one of the applications that utilizes the known characteristics of DNA.After completing this module, the intern will acquire knowledge on:
- DNA Replication
- DNA Chemistry
- Genetic Diversity
- Gel Electrophoresis
- How will it link to the community/real world?
- DNA identification
- General Module ObjectivesTo acquire knowledge on:
- General Laboratory Management
Didactic Part of the Intership Program
A. Research Project Preparation and Presentation
Each intern is requested to work in a group with other colleagues in preparing and presenting a scientific research project. The research topic is usually selected by the intern and carried out under the supervision of a faculty supervisor. Selection of the topic is usually done at the beginning of the internship. This is mainly to give him/her the chance in picking up the right topic and to find the interested faculty supervisor who may offer his/her help and guidance in the completion of the project during the internship training program.
- Ability to identify research topic and write a related Research Proposal.
- Ability to carry out the research
- Ability to write the outcome of the research using the IMRAD format
Rules and Guidelines for Interns’ Research Manuscript
The research report should be submitted to the ITPC Chairman at least two weeks before the scheduled day of presentation. The manuscript should be prepared in English language in a type written format. The manuscript should include the title, author(s), and their affiliations, abstract, body of the main work acknowledgement and references. The title must be concise, informative and representative of the study. A summary or an abstract written in Arabic and English languages must appear in the first page. It should state the purpose of the study, basic procedures, main findings and the principal conclusions.
The introduction states clearly the value and scientific merit of the research with relevant literature review for which the study is based. It should cover the related articles from the different published peer-reviewed journals that could be obtained from any available database. At the end of the section, a precise statement for which the research is aimed to is to be addressed in order to draw the connected relation between the conclusions and objectives.
The section of materials and methods should briefly describe the subjects utilized in the study and the methodology employed in the selection and analysis. The main results should always come next to materials and methods and include the findings of the study presented in text and numerical format with the appropriate statistical references. Simplified tables and/or figures and relative illustrations are to be attached but with no repetition. All figures, tables and illustrations are to be identified clearly with brief and conclusive captions. There should be a useful detailed discussion of the significance of the result in other observations related to the study. Methods by which subjects were assessed and the success of experiments should be judge. In the section of conclusion, only those findings supported by data are presented. This is followed by a short statement on the recommendation for further study if this is applicable. All references which have been cited or referred to in the study should be listed in the section of references or bibliography. The Research Center of RCsDP has specified the format for writing a Manuscript. By the end of manuscript, the author(s) is/are expected to acknowledge all persons who may have generously offered their scientific or technical assistance during the course and preparation of the research.
Other Rules and Guidelines
- An interns or trainees project will not be considered as requirement if he or she has shown any of the following as reported by his or her supervisor and affirmed by the project director:
- Minimal Involvement
- Lack of Cooperation
- Punctuality Issues
- The intern / trainee showing any of the above except item no. 4 will be required to have or join another project.
- Any intern / trainee who failed to show up or arrived late in a research presentation will be allowed to be scheduled for presentation of the same project as long as he/she is reported officially by his/her supervisor to have a maximum involvement in the research project.
B. Advanced Education Seminar
These include selected presentations given by interns, faculty members of the Colleges or invited speakers covering new advances in a wide range of dental topics.
- To expose the interns to current concepts in dentistry in order to upgrade their skills and widened their knowledge on certain topics
- To improve their verbal communication skills and enhance their mastery in the usage of audio visual aids through formal lectures and seminar presentations.
- Rules and Guidelines
- The list of the topics will be made available to the interns by the beginning of each rotation.
- The interns’ presentation of an advanced topic will be evaluated as a requirement in the internship training program.
- Any cancellation of scheduled presentation can only be approved based on the following guidelines:
- If another intern is willing to interchange his/her schedule with another intern
- Due to any justifiable or valid reason
- All unapproved cancellation will subject the intern to disciplinary measure
C. Journal Club Activity
Each intern/trainee will be grouped according to an assigned journal. Each assigned journal will comprise of minimum of (3) members wherein the group leader will be nominated at the beginning of the rota.
- To give chance for the intern at RCDP to be updated and exposed to the current dental literature in a selected non-specialty journal.
- To select journals at international level.
- To gain knowledge from the different publications of dental journals.
Responsibilities of the Journal Club Group Leader
- To coordinate the activity every week with all the members.
- To distribute the job and give assignments to meet the goals and commitments of the group.
- Responsible to send the power point presentation of the chosen article and PDF copy of the said article by email to [email protected]
- Responsible in subscribing to the journal by arranging with the members with regards to the payment where all needs to contribute.
Responsibilities of the Journal Club Group Members
- To cooperate with the group leader regarding their assignments.
- To present together with the leader and other group members chosen articles by means of power point presentation.
- To contribute to the subscription payment of the journal which will be under the name of the group leader.
- The presentation will be graded between 0-5 wherein “0” is the lowest and “5” is the highest and the passing mark is “3”.
- It will be based on the following criteria:
- Knowledge of subject
- Attitude response to question / criticism / opinion
- Organization, content, substance and scope
- Communication Skills (Clarity, Pronunciation, Grammar)
- Interaction with supervising faculty members
- Non-submission of PDF copy and power point presentation (2) days before the scheduled presentation, the group will have (1) point deduction.
- Any member who will not participate irregardless of the reason will receive a mark of “0” and needs to present individually a different article from the same journal. Joining another group is not an option.
Guidelines on Journal Preparation and Presentation
- Open the website of the journal assigned to you.
- The Group leader must assign his/her members to collect the following information:
- Complete name of journal
- Aims and Scope
- Name of Publisher or Publishing Company
- Name of Editorial Board
- Author Background
- Country where it is published (Origin of publication)
- Date of first publication
- Number of Journals published since they started
- Advertising information (policy, orders including subscription price, inquiries and contact nos.)
- ISBN or ISS no.
- Frequency of Publication
- The leader must subscribe to the journal assigned to his/her group and to arrange with his/her members with regards to the payment for the journal subscription.
- The 1st presentation by the group leader by PowerPoint will only be the introduction of the assigned journal where the duration will be maximum of (10) minutes.
- The succeeding presentation from the group members will cover the current issue of the journal Publication (case presentation, literature review, original research,letter for editor and others).
D. Community Session and Duration
- Number of ProjectsThe total requirements for Dentistry/Dental Hygiene , Nursing and Clinical Laboratory Sciences Interns will be as follows:
- (1) Field Group Community Project
Master video consisting of an introduction that can motivate the participants to listen and an outline of the presentation.
- One video for every member (Author) with a duration of 1-2 minutes
(1) Video by Group with duration of 3-4 minutes (Topic to be provided by the Faculty Ambassador) or another (1) Field Group Community Project
- (1) Field Group Community Project
- Details on E-Videos
- All videos recommended will be reviewed by the member of the community project committee regarding quality, craftsmanship and if they uphold the country’s culture and tradition. A mark of 75% and above will qualify a video for uploading in the YouTube linked to the College website.
- Target Population – School Children from primary to intermediate level
Other target participants will be subjected to the discretion of the King Salman Center for Children Health.
- Target Site – Schools in Riyadh Region
Other target sites will be subjected to the discretion of the King Salman Center for Children Health.
- Target Date (1st Academic Year)
- Selection and Planning
Whole Month of September
Whole Month of October
- Submission of Community Videos in CD Format
For School Community Projects – (1) Week before the date of School Community Project
For E-Video Community Projects – End of December
1st of November to end of December
- Assessment and Evaluation
1st Week of January
Target Date (2nd Academic Year)
- Selection and Planning
Whole Month of February
Whole Month of March
- Submission of Community Videos in CD Format
For School Community Projects – (1) Week before the date of School Community Project
For E-Video Community Projects – End of May
1st of April to end of May
- Assessment and Evaluation
1st Week of June
- Selection and Planning
- Assessment and Evaluation of Field Community ProjectsOfficial questionnaires will be used to gauge the knowledge of the population on certain topics before and after the community service.The total evaluation will be based on the result of the above survey (Impact), Concept and Organization, Professionalism, Creativity, Presentation, Documentation and Community Project Report.